All simulation should be carried out at STC Essay

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All simulation should be carried out at STC Essay

All simulation should be carried out at STC Essay

1-From the example device files, use the PINRPIN file, which is a silicon based double junction thin filmsolar cell.Get the following information.

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2-Based on the example cell,make a single junction Si based PIN solar cell and get the following information to add to your report.

3-Repeat Question 2 for a PN junction solar cell.

4-sing MS-Excelplot illuminated IV curve of all three types of solar cells together on the first quadrant.Compare/analyze the result.

11/3/2016 Simulation Software ­ Solar Cells Simulation ­ Illinois Wiki Pages / Home Simulation Software Created by Unknown User (ymliu), last modified by Rockett, Angus Alexander on Sep 01, 2015 Unknown macro: {pagetree2} AMPS[1] SCAPS PC1D AFORS­HET wxAMPS[2~5] is a new software designed at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, in collaboration with Nankai University of China. It follows the physical principle of AMPS, adds the portion of tunneling currents [6~7], improves convergence and speed, and provides a better visualization. It is compatible with the simulation files downloadable from this WIKI. Because this WIKI and database are based on sharing spirits, if wxAMPS works well in your simulation research, sending us a copy of your device files would be appreciated a lot. The program is open source so developers should contact Angus Rockett (arockett@illinois.edu) for information about obtaining a copy of the source code. Note that a version of wx­AMPS designed to handle photoelectrochemical cells is under development. A beta­version will be available soon. Please contact us for further information. We encourage collaboration so if you have questions about wx­AMPS please let us know. All simulation should be carried out at STC Essay

Please acknowledge Prof. Rockett, Dr. Yiming Liu of UIUC and Prof. Fonash of PSU in any of your articles, reports, course lectures, and presentations which employ wxAMPS in simulation results. Software Download: wxAMPS (Updated on Jun. 5th, 2013) (Bugs fixed) Linux Version (Beta, Nov 30th, 2011) Mac Version (Beta, Jun. 20th, 2012) supports the latest MacOS 10.9 For some compilers’ reasons, the Mac version runs slower than the Windows and the Linux version. Console Version(Beta, Jan. 20th, 2013)[3] FAQ Update Log Extension: Console Version & Code (This code provides an interface to call the wxAMPS kernel. Thanks to Gregory Brown from NanoSolar for the parts of batch processing and generating a device file of graded CIGS solar cell.) Matlab scripts for generating graded device (The scripts generate a graded CIGS device file from a SIMS data representing the Ga/III ratio) Modified wxAMPS for photoelectrochemical modeling The files included here were developed in collaboration with Stephen Maldonado and his group at the University of Michigan. This modified version uses the Marcus­Gerischer formalism for the current boundary conditions to properly describe charge transfer at semiconductor electrodes in photochemical systems such as dye sensitized solar cells. A description of the work has been presented in a paper in JACS.[9] https://wiki.illinois.edu//wiki/display/solarcellsim/Simulation+Software 1/2 11/3/2016 Simulation Software ­ Solar Cells Simulation ­ Illinois Wiki A detailed description of the revision of boundary conditions used in this simulation may be found here: boundary_conditionsV2.pdf References 1. AMPS Manual 2. Y. Liu, Y. Sun, and A. Rockett, “A new simulation software of solar cells­­wxAMPS”, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2012. 3. Y. Liu, Y. Sun, and A. Rockett, “Batch simulation of solar cells by using Matlab and wxAMPS”, in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2012 38th IEEE. 4. Y. Liu, D. Heinzel, and A. Rockett, “A new solar cell simulator: wxAMPS”, in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2011 37th IEEE. 5. Y. Liu, D. Heinzel, and A. Rockett, “A Revised Version of the AMPS Simulation Code”, in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2010 35th IEEE, 2010, pp. 001943­001947. 6. K. Yang, “Modeling of abrupt heterojunctions using a thermionic­field emission boundary conditions”, Solid­State Electronics, vol. 36, issue 3, pp. 321­330, 1993. 7. G. A. M. Hurkx, D. B. M. Klaassen, and M. P. G. Knuvers, “A new recombination model for device simulation including tunneling”, Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 39, pp. 331­338, 1992. 8. M. Burgelman, et al., “Modeling thin­film PV devices”, Progress in Photovoltaics, vol. 12, pp. 143­153, Mar­May 2004. 9. S. Maldonado, et.al., “Dye­sensitized Photocathodes: Efficient Light­Stimulated Hole Injection into p­GaP Under Depletion Conditions”,2012 Jun 27;134(25):10670­81 No labels https://wiki.illinois.edu//wiki/display/solarcellsim/Simulation+Software 2/2 Thin Solid Films 515 (2007) 6285 – 6287 www.elsevier.com/locate/tsf Numerical simulation of CuInxGa1 − xSe2 solar cells by AMPS-1D A. Bouloufa a,b,⁎, K. Djessas b , A. Zegadi a a b Laboratoire C.C.N.S., Université Ferhat Abbas de Sétif, Algérie Laboratoire M.E.P.S., Université de Perpignan, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan, France Available online 5 February 2007 Abstract In this work, we have used one dimensional simulation program called analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures (AMPS-1D) to design solar cells based on CuIn1 − xGaxSe2 (CIGS) as the absorber material and study their device performances. Starting with a ZnO/In2S3/CIGS solar cell, an inverted surface layer and a grading space charge region (SCR) in the absorber were taken into account. All simulation should be carried out at STC Essay

The buffer layer used improves the open-circuit voltage (Voc) without significantly sacrificing the short-circuit current density (Jsc). Photovoltaic parameters were determined using current density–voltage (J–V) curve. Quantum efficiency (QE) is about 94% in the visible range. In2S3 buffer layer have shown to be a competitive alternative to devices with the CdS buffer. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: CIGS; Photovoltaic parameters; AMPS-1D; Conduction band offset; In2S3 1. Introduction 2. Device modelling CuIn1 − xGaxSe2 is one of the promising materials as an absorber of high efficiency thin film solar cells. The CIGSbased solar cells exhibit excellent outdoor stability, radiation hardness and highest efficiencies (19.2%) [1]. Therefore, this combination makes CIGS a promising material for the low cost, high efficiency solar cells. Indium sulfide (In2S3) was used as buffer layer and studies have shown that it is an alternative buffer material to CdS [2,3]. Theoretical studies of solar cells predict that the light current density should be a constant for all voltages. CIGS solar cells often show deviations from this ideal behaviour. Using numerical simulation, it will be shown that this effect can be explained assuming conduction band offsets at the ZnO-In2S3 and In2S3-CIGS interfaces. The effects of band offsets on shortcircuit current density, open-circuit voltage and efficiency have been also analysed with numerical simulations. Band offsets up to 0.3 eV are found to give a good device performance [4,5]. The modelling calculations discussed in the following section uses the software AMPS-1D. It estimates the steadystate band diagram, recombination profile, carrier transport in ⁎ Corresponding author. Laboratoire M.E.P.S., Université de Perpignan, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan, France. Tel.: +33 4 68 66 22 35; fax: +33 4 68 66 22 34. E-mail address: abdeslam_bouloufa@yahoo.fr (A. Bouloufa). 0040-6090/$ – see front matter © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2006.12.110 Fig. 1. Cell structure. 6286 A. Bouloufa et al. / Thin Solid Films 515 (2007) 6285–6287 Fig. 2. Window in AMPS-1D for inputting all parameters of n-ZnO:Al. one dimension based on the Poisson equation and the hole and electron continuity equations. They are given, respectively, by [6]: d dw −eð xÞ dx h dx i ¼ q pð xÞ−nð xÞ þ Ndþ ð xÞ−NA− ð xÞ þ pt ð xÞ−nt ð xÞ ð1Þ a function of the coordinate position x. G is the generation rate, D the diffusion coefficient, ε the permittivity and q the charge of electron. Recombination currents are calculated with the Shockley–Read–Hall (SRH) model for bulk defects and an extension of the SRH model for interface defects. The SRH interface approach allows carriers from both conduction and valence bands to participate in the interface recombination process. 3. Cell structure and material parameters dpn p −p dn dp d2 p ¼ Gp − n n0 −pn lp −lp n n þ Dp 2n dx dt sp dx dx ð2Þ dnp np −np0 dnp d2 np dn ¼ Gn − þ Dn 2 þ np ln þ ln n dx dt sn dx dx ð3Þ where Ψ is the electrostatic potential and n the free electron, p + free hole, nt trapped electron, pt trapped hole, ND the ionized − donor-like doping and NA the ionized acceptor-like doping concentrations and ξ the electric field. All these parameters are In this study, we have considered the CIGS cell structure that is consisted of the following material layers: n-ZnO:Al, i-ZnO, In2S3, p-CIGS absorber, and Mo on glass substrate. An inverted surface layer, which is referred to as an ordered vacancy compound (OVC), is present between the In2S3 and CIGS layers such as CuIn3Se5 or CuIn5Se8 [7,8]. The inverted surface layer is considered to be beneficial to the performance of CIGS cells because the electrical junction is shifted away from the high-recombination interface between the In2S3 and CIGS layers, and hence reducing the recombination rate. The cell structure is shown in Fig. 1. In the simulation an inverted surface layer with a thickness of 30 nm, an electron mobility μn = 10 cm2/V.s, a carrier density n = 1012 cm3, and a band-gap Eg = 1,3 eV have been used. For the absorber CuIn 1 − xGa xSe2, we choose x = 0.3 giving Eg = 1.18 eV. All simulation should be carried out at STC Essay

In order to model an effective recombination center, a deep level defect is placed in the middle of the bandgap of the following layers: In2S3, the inverted surface and the SCR of the CIGS absorber. Table 1 Simulation parameters of the CuIn0.7GaO.3Se2 Fig. 3. Current density vs. voltage of CIGS-based solar cell. In2S3 CdS Voc (V) Jsc (mA/cm2) FF (%) η (%) Rs (Ω cm2) Rsh (Ω cm2) 0.655 0.689 32.57 35.7 75.2 78 16 19.2 0.96 / 3.24 × 103 / A. Bouloufa et al. / Thin Solid Films 515 (2007) 6285–6287 6287 CIGS interface. The band offsets generate a barrier that acts like a secondary diode with the same polarity as the main diode. Under a bias of V = 0.54 V, the barrier is not high to affect significantly the normal current flow. Photons are absorbed in the CIGS close to the junction where the strong band bending creates a potential well. Electrons accumulate in this well and overcome the barrier or recombine at the interface. If the barrier is larger than that which we have assumed, this can block the current flow. The quantum efficiency spectrum is illustrated in Fig. 5. This shows a peak response of nearly 94% and falls of in range below 520 nm. This is due to the absorption and recombination in the In2S3 layer. Fig. 4. Conduction band diagram at O.O V and O.54 V under illumination. 5. Conclusion A numerical simulation model for a solar cell having a structure ZnO/In2S3/CIGS with an inverted surface layer and In2S3 as buffer layer have been carried out using the AMPS-1D device simulation program. Results show that Voc is controlled by the recombination rate in the SCR. This can be reduced by increasing the barrier height via the increase in the SCR bandgap. They also reveal that by using In2S3, a 16% conversion efficiency under illumination (AM 1.5G) could be achieved in a ZnO/In2S3/CIGS structure. Photovoltaic parameters obtained with In2S3 as a buffer compared to CdS-buffer cell, we concluded that In2S3 can be used as an alternative material to CdS. The latter presents serious environmental problems. Acknowledgments Fig. 5. Quantum efficiency of CIGS cell. Semiconductor parameters of each layer of the cell structure were inputted into the simulation software AMPS-1D. An example is shown in Fig. 2. 4. Results and discussions Fig. 3 shows the light J–V curve at global AM 1.5G illumination. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) is reduced due to the spike barrier for photogenerated electrons (≈ 0.3 eV) and recombination at the interface In2S3/CIGS in comparison to CdS-buffer cells. The comparison of photovoltaic and electrical parameters of In2S3 obtained by simulation and CdS [9] are illustrated in Table 1 which indicate that In2S3. We concluded that we can be used In2S3 as an alternative buffer layer to CdS. Serial and shunt resistances have been estimated by calculating the slope nearby V = 0 and V = Voc, respectively. Fig. 4 shows the conduction band diagram under illumination at 0 V and 0.54 V bias with a band-gap grading. A difference of electron affinities generates a barrier at the In2S3- We acknowledge the use of AMPS-1D program developed by Dr. Fonash’s group of Pennsylvania State University. All simulation should be carried out at STC Essay

This work was supported by Agence universitaire de la francophonie (AUF) under the project 6313PS577. References [1] C.-S. Jiang, R. Noufi, K. Ramanathan, H.R. Moutinho, M.M. Al-Jassim, J. Appl. Phys. 97 (2005) 053701. [2] S. Spiering, A. Eicke, D. Hariskos, M. Powalla, N. Naghavi, D. Lincot, Thin Solid Films, 451–452 (2004) 562. [3] N. Naghavi, S. Spiering, M. Powalla, B. Canava, A. Taisne, J.-F. Guillemoles, S. T aunier, A. Etcheberry, D. Lincot, Material Research Society (MRS) Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2003, p. 465. [4] T. Minemoto, T. Matsui, H. Takakura, Y. Hamakawa, T. Negami, Y. Hashimoto, T. Uenoyama, M. Kitagawa, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 67 (2001) 83. [5] X. Liu, J.R. Sites, AIP Conf. Proc. 353 (1996) 444. [6] S.M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981, p. 51. [7] C. Rinco, S.M. Wasim, G. Marin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 (2002) 998. [8] S.M. Wasim, C. Rinco, G. Marin, J.M. Delgado, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77 (2000) 94. [9] S. Siebentritt, Sol. Energy 77 (2004) 767. NUMERICAL MODELING OF CIGS AND CdTe SOLAR CELLS: SETTING THE BASELINE M. Gloeckler, A.L. Fahrenbruch, and J.R. Sites Physics Department, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523 USA ABSTRACT Numerical modeling of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells is an important strategy to test the viability of proposed physical explanations and to predict the effect of physical changes on cell performance. In general, this must be done with only partial knowledge of input parameters. Nevertheless, for consistent comparisons between laboratories, it is extremely useful to have a common starting point, or baseline. We will discuss guidelines that should be considered assigning input parameters for numerical modeling. Consequently specific baseline parameters for CIGS and CdTe are proposed. The modeling results for these baseline cases are presented and it is discussed how the baseline cases serve to describe some of the most important complications that are often found in experimental CIGS and CdTe solar cells. 1. INTRODUCTION The major applications for modeling in solar cell research are: testing the viability of proposed physical explanations, predicting the effect of changes in material properties and geometry on cell performance, and fitting of modeling output to experimental results. The input parameter sets used to fit only experimental J-V data may not be unique. Therefore, fitting of experimental data is only conclusive if a wide set of data, i.e. J-V at different temperatures, and QE at different biases, is used. Input parameters that are well known should not be changed at any time, whereas parameters that have only marginal effect on the output can be tested and then not changed. These parameters excluded, the remaining parameters are available for fitting purposes. 2. SELECTION OF INPUT PARAMETERS 2.1 Front and Back Contacts and Surfaces In general, contacts can be assumed ohmic or, depending on the focus of the modeling, assigned a Schottky barrier height consistent with experimental observations. The reflection at the back surface has only minor influence on the achievable short-circuit current density (Jsc), and these influences only become noticeable if the absorber is chosen to be fairly thin.All simulation should be carried out at STC Essay

Many modeling tools support a constant multiplicative reflection factor for the front surface (i.e. RF = 0.1, 10% reflection). Quantum efficiency (QE) is then reduced by this fraction and, if interference effects are neglected, QE will show a fairly flat response at intermediate wavelengths of ~1-RF. 2.2 Material Parameters Carrier mobilities for polycrystalline material should be chosen lower than the values reported for crystalline material. Effective masses of me* = 0.2m0 for electrons and mh* = 0.8m0 for holes, which are numbers typical for direct band gap material, are recommended unless more specific data is available. The ratio of the carrier mobilities (µe/µh) should be approximately inversely proportional to the ratio of the effective masses (mh*/me*). The effective density of states, NC, can be calculated using eqn. (1) [1] and similarly for NV. Note the direct temperature dependence in NC and NV, which should be taken into account for temperature dependent modeling. 3  2πme*kT  2  N C = 2 2  h  (1) Carrier concentrations can be determined from capacitance-voltage analysis. Typical numbers are in the authors’ experience the order of 1016 cm-3 for CIGS and 1014 cm-3 for CdTe. The band gaps of the semiconductors are known (see Tables I & II), and for the Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 alloys an approximate expression can be used (2) [2]. Band offsets at the interfaces will be discussed within the specific material sections below. E(x) = 1.02 + 0.67x + 0.11x(x-1) (2) 2.3 Defect States Most numerical simulators use the Shockley-ReadHall (SRH) model [3] to describe carrier recombination currents. There are two approaches to do this: either the model assumes a constant minority carrier lifetime τ, or the input parameters are capture cross sections, σe and σp, and the defect distributions Ndef(E). An estimate of the lifetime (LT) can be calculated from the defect density (DD) parameters by τ ≅ (σ vth N def )−1 (3) vth ≅ 107 cm/s is the thermal velocity of the electrons. However, in general the lifetime depends on the cross sections for both carriers and the Fermi level. Defect Density (DD) Model. Since variations of the energetic defect distribution show only negligible effects on the output, it is recommended to position recombinative defect states in a narrow distribution close to the middle of the band gap (generic “mid-gap” states). In the SRH formalism [3], a defect state can change its charge state only by one elementary charge; therefore, one can always make the following distinctions All simulation should be carried out at STC Essay

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