Describe how legal and ethical considerations for group and family therapy differ from those for individual therapy


Describe how legal and ethical considerations for group and family therapy differ from those for individual therapy
Week 1 peer responses

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Marie Nicolas

Week 1 Discussion


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Psychotherapy is an individualized yet comprehensive biological treatment; it does not target one receptor, one or two neurotransmitters, or single modulators; it taps into all the biological regulations underlying complex brain responses (Javanbakht & Alberini, 2019). Further, psychotherapy has been found to be an effective treatment method for a variety of mental health disorders such as anxiety, major depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It also affects regions associated with emotions, emotion regulation, fear, and reward are associated psychotherapy, and psychotherapy affects the functioning of these regions. Psychotherapy alters the functioning of activity regions which are associated with emotion regulation, negative emotion, reward, and fear with such activity regions responding to psychotherapy.

While psychotherapy has been proven to be an effective treatment approach for mental health disorders factors such as religion, culture, and the socioeconomic background are likely to affect a person’s perspective on the value of psychotherapy treatments. Specifically, religion impacts an individual’s perspective on psychotherapy in different ways (Baruth & Manning, 2016). For instance, an extremely religious person may prefer to seek spiritual intervention, such as prayers for healing rather than psychotherapy. Individuals may also use religion as coping mechanisms instead of psychotherapy. In this sense, spirituality has an immeasurable role in human’s understanding of health and the concept of healing. Culture also influences an individual’s perspective regarding psychotherapy. While some cultures, such as the western, welcome psychotherapy, others view it as inacceptable and to them attending psychotherapy sessions is highly disregarded.

Socioeconomic status might equally impact an individual’s perspective on psychotherapy (Adler et al., 2016). Some psychotherapy sessions can be fairly costly to some people from low socioeconomic status, hence their capacity to take part may be hindered. Similarly, those who can afford psychotherapy sessions may view it as an effective option and authentically attend the sessions.

Psychotherapy is a proven method in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders in both the individual and group setting. Individual therapy consists of the application of a therapeutic process with an individual and the treating clinician and group therapy applies the same concept but consists of two or more individuals seeking therapeutic intervention. Regardless of the setting, the practicing clinician muse be aware of the legal and ethical implications that come with treating clients in both individual and group psychotherapy sessions (Ware & Dillman-Taylor, 2014). When providing services to clients in the group or family setting versus those in the individual therapy environment, the therapeutic environment might be impacted if these factors are not taken into account. The therapist must be aware that the therapeutic dynamic is altered when dealing with a group versus individual therapy session. Client trust and therapeutic alliance will need to established not only with the group facilitator but also with the group participants to meet the goals of the formation of the particular group session. Group members should feel free to interact within the therapeutic environment without fear of intimidation, judgment or unnecessary disclosure of their private thoughts or experiences. The principles of interpersonal learning, group cohesiveness, and catharsis are all impacted by some of these considerations. The psychotherapist will also be aware of their abilities in providing effective treatment using the appropriate treatment modalities (Wheeler, 2014)


Adler, N. E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M. A., Cohen, S., Folkman, S., Kahn, R. L., & Syme, S. L. (2016). Socioeconomic status and health: the challenge of the gradient. American psychologist, 49(1), 15.

Baruth, L. G., & Manning, M. L. (2016). Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy: A lifespan approach. Routledge.

Javanbakht, A., & Alberini, C. M. (2019). Editorial: Neurobiological Models of Psychotherapy. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 13, 144.

Ware, J.N., & Dillman-Taylor, D. (2014). Concerns about confidentiality: The application of ethical decision-making within group play therapy. International Journal of Play Therapy, 23(3), 172-186. doi:10.1037/a0036667

Wheeler, K. (Eds.). (2014). Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse: A how to guide for evidence-based practice. New York, NY: Springer.

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19 hours ago

Georgiann Ostrander

Week 1 / 1st Post/ Ostrander, G. Attachment


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NRNP 6645/Week 1

Discussion Forum

Post an explanation of whether psychotherapy has a biological basis. Explain how culture, religion, and socioeconomics might influence one’s perspective on the value of psychotherapy treatments. Describe how legal and ethical considerations for group and family therapy differ from those for individual therapy and explain how these differences might impact your therapeutic approaches for clients in the group, individual, and family therapy. Support your rationale with at least three peer-reviewed, evidence-based sources and explain why each of your supporting sources is considered scholarly. Attach the PDFs of your sources.

The National Alliance on Mental Illness (2021) describes psychotherapy as talk therapy and defined as when a person, couple, or family seeks a therapist to discuss concerns either from the past or in the present to gain a perspective and treatment plan. The Journal of Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience (2019) defines psychotherapy as an individualized yet comprehensive biological treatment that evaluates the whole sense of self and/or others using cognitive, emotional, internal regulate processes with new learning processes and experiences. Psychotherapy has a biological basis with a strong connection and pathways of the brain that begin at conception thru an individual lifespan and are based upon the individual environment, culture, religion, personal beliefs, education, and socioeconomics influences. According to Wiseman and Egozi (2021), the framework of psychotherapy and the attachment theory provides a bridge that encompasses the developmental lifespan approach called cradle to grave. The Journal of Frontiers in Genetics (2018) states understanding how genetic neuroscience can help improve and contribute to psychotherapy to relieve psychic suffering. The individual’s biological gene and structure contribute to behaviors during a life span; however, the environment from early infancy to adulthood can change or trigger gene expression that can contribute to many mental health disorders. A person that is brought up in a loving accepting home compared to a person brought up in a stressful or abusive home will likely have different mental health outcomes. The individual ability to cope or respond to the stressors can be altered by cultural beliefs and socioeconomic status. The psychotherapist approach for everyone will vary based upon the person’s environmental exposures, culture, belief system over their lifespan. The Journal of Frontiers in Genetics (2018) states natural science in psychology is based upon quantifiable psychic processes and the intricate relationships that exist between genes, an environment that requires a multi-level analysis from genes to behavior, brain structures, cognitive processes, and emotional state.

Ethical and legal considerations should be evaluated for everyone to ensure the therapy session is confidential, privacy and comfort provided for the patient without any feeling of bias or judgment. The provider should consider the individual beliefs and respect their cultural practices that can and will at times change the plan of care. The patient should provide consent to share medical records with another provider or facility. A new ethical consideration is whether psychotherapy services should be provided online with telehealth. The Journal article by Stoll, J. et al. (2020) states there are many in favor of online psychotherapy due to increased access, flexibility, convenience, comfortable for the patients, economic advantages, patient empowerment. Stoll et al. (2020) state those opposed to online psychotherapy have concerns about privacy, security, technological challenges, and the absence of ethical guidelines, code of conduct for online psychotherapy.

References 20170516_NPCoreCompsContentF.pdf Frontiers Javanbakht.pdf fpsyt-10-00993.pdf wiseman.pdf

Javanbakht, A., & Alberini, C. M. (2019). Editorial: Neurobiological Models of Psychotherapy. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 13, 144.

Jiménez, J. P., Botto, A., Herrera, L., Leighton, C., Rossi, J. L., Quevedo, Y., Silva, J. R., Martínez, F., Assar, R., Salazar, L. A., Ortiz, M., Ríos, U., Barros, P., Jaramillo, K., & Luyten, P. (2018). Psychotherapy and Genetic Neuroscience: An Emerging Dialog. Frontiers in genetics, 9, 257.

National Alliance of Mental Illness (2021). About mental illness: Psychotherapy. Retrieved from

Wiseman, H., & Egozi, S. (2021). Attachment theory as a framework for responsiveness in psychotherapy. In J. C. Watson & H. Wiseman (Eds.), The responsive psychotherapist: Attuning to clients at the moment. (pp. 59–82). American Psychological Association.

Stoll, J., Müller, J. A., & Trachsel, M. (2020). Ethical Issues in Online Psychotherapy: A Narrative Review. Frontiers in psychiatry, 10, 993.

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