HTS 3072 Making the Most of Qualitative Interviews Covid Essay –

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HTS 3072 Making the Most of Qualitative Interviews Covid Essay

HTS 3072 Making the Most of Qualitative Interviews Covid Essay

HTS 3072: Sociology of Education Fall 2021 Dr. Fong Assignment 3: Interview Analysis Due Oct. 27 For this assignment, you will interview someone about some aspect of their schooling experience or perspective on education and write a brief essay connecting findings from the interview to course concepts. In-depth interviewing is a method many sociologists use to study the social world. Through this assignment, you will gain firsthand experience conducting sociological research and linking what you learn with class readings and discussions. Some ideas on possible interviewees and topics to get you started:  A current or former student regarding some aspect of their experience with education, especially if different from your own. What was/is schooling like (during the pandemic, during the 1950’s, in another country, in an elite prep school, etc.)? (If the interviewee is under 18, make sure it’s okay with their parent/guardian to talk with them.)  A parent of a child in school. How did their child end up in that school? What is their relationship with the school? What are their goals for their child’s education?  A teacher or school official. What are their goals for their students and how do they work to achieve them? How do they manage student misbehavior? What are some of the challenges of their job? What opportunities or challenges have they experienced with remote learning during the pandemic? This list is by no means exhaustive, so feel free to be creative. It is completely acceptable to interview someone you know, like a parent or grandparent, but make sure the interview focuses on them and not you (i.e., don’t interview your parent about your own schooling). It helps to have a focus for the interview – what are you looking to learn from this person? For example, trying to cover everything about the person’s educational experience would probably lead to superficial or overly broad answers, so you might focus on something like their experience as a low-income student in an affluent school. You will want to prepare a list of questions in advance, with an eye to connections to course concepts due to the assignment requirements. However, it’s also important to be flexible in the moment, for instance by asking follow-up questions and following their lead. We will discuss interviewing techniques more in class. There are no strict requirements for the length of the interview – some long interviews don’t yield much, while in some cases a lot of rich data can be gained in a short time – but I see 30 minutes as a good estimate. Phone or virtual interviews are fine. You may opt to record the interview with the interviewee’s permission; if you do not record, make sure to take detailed notes, as this will be the basis for your paper. You can assure the interviewee that you will not use their real name in your paper (you can give them a fake name in the write-up if you wish). Your essay (3-4 double-spaced pages) should 1) describe, 2) analyze, and 3) contextualize what your interview revealed.    Describe: Share detailed findings from your interview. At times this will involve summarizing what the interviewee said, but the strongest papers will draw on quotations (or approximations based on your notes) to show the reader your interviewee’s perspective or narrative. HTS 3072 Making the Most of Qualitative Interviews Covid Essay

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That said, your paper should not be a transcript of the interview. Select key points you want to bring into the paper. Not everything you discussed in the interview needs to be in the paper, nor does the paper organization need to follow the order of your interview. Analyze: Tell the reader what we should make of your findings – the broader point for which your details provide evidence. Analysis involves making a claim that against which others could marshal alternative evidence. For instance, in Negotiating Opportunities (page 32), Calarco’s analytic statement – “middle-class parents viewed support-seeking as a tremendously beneficial skill” – is supported by descriptive evidence from her data, such as Ms. Matthews’ quote about how she conveys the importance of asking teachers questions. Contextualize: Connect your interview findings to the theoretical arguments and research from class readings and/or discussions. How does your interview support, challenge, extend, or complicate themes from class? Don’t hesitate to point out how what you heard differs from the readings or lectures. Please cite the sources you reference, in a consistent format. You do not need to add citations to lectures or class discussions, although you could reference them (“as discussed in class…). There’s no minimum number of connections to course concepts or readings – a successful paper could draw on just one or two with in-depth engagement, but the three to four range is probably appropriate for most papers. Regarding organization, it helps to have an introduction to set the stage for the scope of the paper. Then, the body of the paper would include several points, ordered to flow logically and introduced with topic sentences. The conclusion of the paper would summarize the key points and might point to further questions or research suggested by your interview. I am happy to discuss an outline of your paper with you in advance. I have posted two example essays on Canvas. Note that I will expect your essays to do more contextualizing than these examples – links to course material should be more substantial than just the brief, passing references in the examples. But hopefully the examples will give you a sense of what your interview could look like and how you might write up the findings. Assignment Rubric (15 points) Objective Interview Data Outstanding (3) Presents rich and detailed data from an in-depth interview Good (2) Presents some data; data are lacking in detail at points Data Analysis Offers sophisticated analysis of interview, Sound but underdeveloped analysis of 2 Fair (1) Presents minimal data indicating an interview that did not glean much information Weak analysis of interview Inadequate (0) Contains no evidence an interview was conducted Contains little to no analysis of interview indicating critical thinking and engagement Connection Draws sharp to Course connections to Concepts course concepts that reflect command of the material, citing sources as appropriate Organization Well-organized, focusing around a key topic/point and flowing logically Writing Writing is very clear and few if any errors in grammar or wording interview Adequately relates interview to course concepts Reasonably organized Minimal or No connection to incorrect connection course concepts to course concepts Points are disconnected and/or do not flow logically Writing is Writing is coherent reasonably clear and but grammar and any grammar or style need wording errors are improvement not distracting 3 Poorly organized and difficult to follow Writing is difficult to understand – [ ] What is your name, Dr. Rena Douse, DNP, APRN,MSN-FPN-C, – [ ] Are you certified? Yes, I am a certified Family Nurse Practitioner. – [ ] How old are you? 48 – [ ] What is your highest educational level- Doctorate in Nursing Practice – [ ] HTS 3072 Making the Most of Qualitative Interviews Covid Essay

What schools did you attend? Armstrong Atlantic State University(Bachelor of Science in Nursing), Georgia Southern University(Master of Science in Nursing as a Family Nurse Practitioner) and Troy University ( Doctorate in Nursing Practice) – [ ] Why did you choose your profession? I chose to be a nurse, because I always had a passion for helping others within my community, which is why my focus has always been in community health nursing. – [ ] How long have you been a nurse? 23 years – [ ] Did you experience a pandemic during your tenure at any of the universities? Yes and No..we experienced a short span of Ebola, however it was eradicated quickly. I also experienced approx. 3 hurricanes in which we had to evacuate, which was rather difficult to keep up with assignments due to power outages and limited internet. – [ ] What is your current role at your workplace? CEO – [ ] How is COVID-19 affecting your workplace and staff? Initially we had several staff shortages due to covid-19 during the first wave. We never closed since we were essential workers, however some staff were asked to work from home to comply with CDC social distance guidelines. Our revenue dropped tremendously. We initiated Telehealth in an effort to continue to provide service to our patients. While testing over 3,000 patients, I became infected with covid-19, which caused me to be out of work for approximately 21days. – [ ] Do you require your staff to be vaccinated now since vaccines are available? Yes we require all staff to be vaccinated. Our staff is 100% vaccinated without offering incentives. – [ ] Do you’ll provide vaccines? Yes, we have all 3 available, however only Pfizer is available for individuals 12 and older. – [ ] What do you want the community to know? I want the community to know that all vaccines are safe and there’s no way to compare the 3 since they were studied at different times on different individuals with different variants. I would also say that this is now a preventable infection, since the availability of vaccines. 99% of individuals who are dying from covid today, are not vaccinated. Remember the 3W’s plus T. Wash your hands, Watch your distance around crowds, Wear face covering, and Trust the science. We all are hoping to get back to some sense of normalcy. What did you take from online schooling and how was it different from in person learning? ● The greatest difference would be time management and utilization of resources. Unlike in-person, online learning requires more self-discipline to ensure that tasks are completed independently and timely. One has to prioritize and set a schedule that is adhered to consistently so that deadlines can be met. As an nontraditional student online classes were a better option due to me being able to build my class schedule around my work schedule. HTS 3072 Assignment 3: Example A Having worked on the Fight for $15 campaign, whose aim is a fifteen-dollar minimum wage and a union for fast food workers, I turned my focus for this assignment to food service workers. One of the persistent stories told during the campaign was that of those working more than one job, often with total hours far exceeding the standard 40 hours/week. Common sense might lead one to imagine that working two jobs requires twice the work and energy that working one would; I was interested in examining the additional factors that might factor into working more than one job. What makes two jobs more than simply twice as stressful than one?HTS 3072 Making the Most of Qualitative Interviews Covid Essay

I interviewed food services workers at Panera in [location]. Panera never saw an idle stretch of more than five minutes. Still, two workers—Prince and Danny—were able to talk with me quite openly. Both men were black, queer, and young, and while Prince had left his second job a few weeks back, Danny was still working two. The four main additional difficulties of working two jobs that emerged were exhaustion, a suffering social life, difficulties with transportation, and code switching between the two. On the days where one was scheduled to be at both jobs, exhaustion set in early, almost like a Pavlovian response to the physical trials of the day to come. Each’s two jobs may not seem physically laborious—Prince worked as a server at a fast food restaurant and as a cashier at Panera, and Danny worked as a cashier at a grocery store and at Panera—but simply standing all day was enough to leave the young men sore and uncomfortable by midday. Actually, standing still was in many ways more exhausting than moving around; Prince demonstrated some squats and stretches he tries to work in when work was slow to make sure his knees weren’t locked for too many hours. Knowing that they would be standing all day also led both of them to conserve their energy earlier on in the day by doing less work, a strategy that I thought immediately HTS 3072 Assignment 3: Example A might hurt one’s chances of moving up in the ranks in that workplace, though I didn’t share that thought. Prince, whose second job didn’t end until the wee hours of the morning, often on weekends, said “I’m young, so I can take being tired, I can take being sore, but if I’m up in here at some kind of hour while my friends are out together, partying together, that’s what I can’t take. Getting back my social life was the best part of quitting.” This small point immediately resonated with me; I avoid working weekend nights at all costs so I can go out with friends. The fact that I had overlooked how real this dilemma is for young people this embarrassed me. One’s life goals aren’t all work-dependent, and the fact that working multiple jobs could hinder one’s chances at forming meaningful relationships, romantic and otherwise, is a major additional issue. In Barbara Ehrenreich’s Nickel and Dimed, the author details the closeness of the relationships she feels with those with whom she works, gossiping on cigarette breaks and sharing tips with untipped workers. HTS 3072 Making the Most of Qualitative Interviews Covid Essay

These bonds, though, are ultimately trumped by fear of management; when a young dishwasher is accused of stealing, Ehrenreich remains silent (Ehrenreich, 40). That such bonds, which are trumped by the ultimate need for a job, are among the only ones that Prince or Danny could realistically form during their exhausting and ill-timed schedules does not bode well for future relationships. Daily transportation costs are also, as one might imagine, higher for those who work two jobs at different locations. Danny works at a grocery store in [location] and the Panera in [location], and he takes the bus from home to the grocery store, the [train] from one location to the next, and then the [train] back home again. Depending on public transportation isn’t just costly; it’s risky for Danny, who only has 45 minutes in between his two jobs. On an average day, it will only take 20 minutes, but in bad weather or train 2 HTS 3072 Assignment 3: Example A traffic? Being late on a somewhat regular basis also seemed to me like an impediment on the road to promotion. The last additional complication in working two jobs was simply switching between the two. When Prince worked at two food service establishments, he frequently mixed up the names of similar dishes—“chicken frontega” for “chicken club,” for example. Danny discussed code switching, the way in which one alters their speech or mannerisms based on company, from his job in [town], a working class neighborhood with many people of color, to [town], where many of the customers were [university] students or employees. At the [town] grocery store, Danny is accustomed to chatting more with customers and being less formal, while at Panera he is expected to move quickly and quietly, though be ready to answer questions about his “favorites” on the menu readily, the latter of which made him laugh as he pointed to the average price of a sandwich: $7. I had expected to hear that the physical and mental toll of working two jobs totaled more than simply twice the toll of one, but there were a few additional hardships that I had not expected to hear. The loss of a social life, apparent in my previous work and in my own life, did not occur to me before talking to Prince and Danny. Furthermore, the impediments that working two jobs provided seemed to prevent promotion at either one, leaving those in that situation perpetually in need of that second job, for lack of a raise at either one. Works Cited Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed: On (not) Getting by in America. New York: Metropolitan, 2001. 3 feature article robert s. weiss in their own words: making the most of qualitative interviews Photos courtesy of Cindy Miller Successfully conducting in-depth interviews requires much more than being a good listener. Researchers must choose interview subjects carefully, push for concrete details, and pore over reams of transcripts to develop their stories. But the result can be a rich and compelling understanding of people’s lives. Two photographs of an interview conducted by Cindy Miller with a village elder at a temple in Thanjavur, near Tamil Nadu, India, 1997. In response to Miller’s questions about changes taking place in the area, the elder used both words and hand gestures to make detailed comments abut local landmarks. Field notes by interviewers (or photo and video recordings) may be necessary to preserve gestures and visual evidence that audio equipment cannot record. In the 1840s, British sociologist-journalist Henry Mayhew sought to learn about the lives of London’s seamstresses— how they did their work and managed to survive on so little income. He found his answers by asking the women themselves and his interviews made vivid the dismal conditions of their lives. One young woman, after describing how little she was paid for long hours of work, said: “I was single…. I had a child, and he used to cry for food. So, as I could not get a living for him myself by my needle, I went into the streets and made out a living that way.”HTS 3072 Making the Most of Qualitative Interviews Covid Essay

The novels of Charles Dickens captured readers’ sympathies, but they were only fiction. Mayhew presented the experiences of real people. Such “qualitative interviews” are now so common that it is easy to forget how radical Henry Mayhew’s procedure—which assumes that ordinary people can provide valid accounts of their own lives—was in his day. Indeed, qualitative interviewing was considered by many researchers so simple that it required no special techniques; listening attentively and respectfully was enough. More recently, practitioners have recognized that training is needed to make the most of interviewing and to avoid its pitfalls. Studies based on in-depth interviews illuminate the social world. They describe the survival struggles of families on welfare, the ups and downs of physicists’ careers and the tendency of two-job couples to assign homemaking to the wives. They reveal the emotional and social implications of organizational charts, from prisons to medical schools. Diane Vaughan’s interview study of the bureaucratic processes that led to the disastrous 1986 Challenger launch has become an important reference for institutions—medical schools as well as NASA—trying to reduce catastrophic errors. The type of interview used in these studies is often called “qualitative” to distinguish it from an interview done for a survey. Qualitative interviews ask about the details of what happened: what was done and said, what the respondent thought and felt. The aim is to come as close as possible to capturing in full the processes that led to an event or experience. The researchers’ report will likely be a densely detailed description of what happened, but it may also provide a basis for a theory of why it happened. In contrast, surveys ask well-crafted questions that elicit brief answers. The answers are then added up and expressed as numbers or percentages. Surveys are quanti- Contexts, Vol. 3, Issue 4, pp. 44-51, ISSN 1536-5042, electronic ISSN 1537-6052. © 2004 by the American Sociological Association. All rights reserved. Please direct all requests for permission to photocopy or reproduce article content through the University of California Press’s Rights and Permissions website, at www.ucpress.edu/journals/rights.htm. 44 contexts fall 2004  HTS 3072 Making the Most of Qualitative Interviews Covid Essay

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