Industrial and organizational psychology

Industrial and organizational psychology (I/O psychology), which is also known as occupational psychology, organizational psychology, work and organizational psychology, is an applied discipline within psychology. I/O psychology is the science of human behaviour relating to work and applies psychological theories and principles to organizations and individuals in their places of work as well as the individual’s work-life more generally.[1] I/O psychologists are trained in the scientist–practitioner model. They contribute to an organization’s success by improving the performance, motivation, job satisfaction, and occupational safety and health as well as the overall health and well-being of its employees. An I/O psychologist conducts research on employee behaviours and attitudes, and how these can be improved through hiring practices, training programs, feedback, and management systems.[2]

I/O psychology was ranked the fastest growing occupation over the next decade, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics‘ Occupational Outlook Handbook in 2014. It is estmated to grow 53% with a mean salary of $98,800, with those in the top 10 percentile earning $168,020 for 2012.

As of 2018, I/O psychology is one of the 16 recognized specialties by the American Psychological Association (APA) in the United States.[3] It is represented by Division 14 of the APA, and was formally known as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). In the United Kingdom, industrial and organizational psychologists are referred to as occupational psychologists. Occupational psychology in the UK is one of nine ‘protected titles’ within the profession “practitioner psychologist” regulated by the Health and Care Professions Council.[4] In the UK, graduate programs in psychology, including occupational psychology, are accredited by the British Psychological Society.

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In Australia, the title organizational psychologist is protected by law, and regulated by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA). Organizational psychology is one of nine areas of specialist endorsement for psychology practice in Australia.[5]

In Europe someone with a specialist EuroPsy Certificate in Work and Organisational Psychology is a fully qualified psychologist and an expert in the work psychology field.[6] Industrial and organizational psychologists reaching the EuroPsy standard are recorded in the Register of European Psychologists and industrial and organizational psychology is one of the three main psychology specializations in Europe.

In South Africa, industrial psychology is a registration category for the profession of psychologist as regulated by the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA).[7]

Unit 3

Q1 Humanistic psychology emphasizes the importance of the individual experience in the understanding of human behavior. Which theorists do you believe were most instrumental in establishing this tenet of the movement? Why?

Q2 It could be argued that to understand both death and afterlife presence, one must first be mindful of physical presence in the world. Briefly contrast a Christian worldview perspective on both mindfulness of physical presence in the world and afterlife presence with the perspective of another worldview on these topics. Which of these resonates most closely with you? Why?


The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology: Theory, Research, and Practice

Read Chapters 35 and 42.

e-Library Resource

1. Spirituality: A Glowing and Useful Term in Search of a Meaning

Bregman, L. (2006). Spirituality: A glowing and useful term in search of a meaning. Omega, 53(1/2), 5–26.

2. The Psychology of Life Stories

McAdams, D. P. (2001). The psychology of life stories. Review of General Psychology, 5(2), 100–122.

Unit 4

Q1 Phenomenology is a qualitative approach to understanding the lived experience of the individual. Consider who you understand to be the primary contributors to phenomenological psychology (as opposed to philosophy). What do you see as the primary differences and similarities among those theorists? Explain. What do you believe are the most significant challenges and benefits of employing a phenomenological approach in psychological research? Explain.

Q2 Quantitative research methods in psychology are based on the research methods used in the natural sciences disciplines to produce empirical research. Dr. Amedeo Giorgi, the founder of the descriptive phenomenological psychology method, asserts that this qualitative method can be used to arrive at empirical results related to understanding human experience. How does Dr. Giorgi’s method compare to quantitative research methodologies? Explain. From your vantage point, does his approach to qualitative research yield empirical evidence in understanding the human condition? Why or why not?


1. The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology: Theory, Research, and Practice

Chapters 19 and 20.

Electronic Resource

1. Phenomenology

Flipp, C. (2014, February 12). Phenomenology [Video].

e-Library Resource

1. A Phenomenological Research Design Illustrated

Groenewald, T. (2004). A phenomenological research design illustrated. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3(1), 1-26.

2. The Interview: Data Collection in Descriptive Phenomenological Human Scientific Research

Englander, M. (2012). The interview: Data collection in descriptive phenomenological human scientific research. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 43(1), 13–35.

Unit 5

Q1 Martin Seligman and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi describe the basic tenets and philosophy of positive psychology. What do you see as the most significant similarities and differences between the perspectives of positive psychology and humanistic psychology? Why? Which of these perspectives do you believe most closely aligns with a Christian worldview? Support your position.

Q2 Within the past two decades, positive psychology and humanistic psychology have been at odds over their philosophical foundations and approaches to human well-being. Briefly discuss the historic development of positive psychology and humanistic psychology. Which perspective do you endorse and why? Support your position. Your defense must cite one scholarly article that makes a case for positive psychology and another that argues for humanistic psychology.


1. Positive Psychology: An Introduction

Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–14.

2. The Humanistic Psychology – Positive Psychology Divide: Contrasts in Philosophical Foundations

Waterman, A. (2013). The humanistic psychology – positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations. American Psychologist, 68(3), 124–133.

3. Toward a Humanistic Positive Psychology: Why Can’t We Just Get Along?

Schneider, K. (2011). Toward a humanistic positive psychology: Why can’t we just get along? Existential Analysis, 22(1), 32–38.


Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.

Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.

APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.

Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.

LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.


Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.