Respond to these two discussions.

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Respond to these two discussions.
Respond to these two discussions. 200 words for each one. No plagiarism.

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Discussion 1

Decision-Making Process

With the paternalistic decision-making model, people tend to feel as though the situation they are intends to be democratic since workers are required to discuss as well as comment and their questions are responded to. Nevertheless, the decision is based on the person at the top. This form of decision-making is effective only when dealing with an individual whose freedom of choice is seriously impaired. With this model, the majority of the decisions are made with the employees’ best interests considered. The manager is provided with the power to rule from the idea that they have the ability to make decisions for the team which enhances trust as well as loyalty with the workers. However, this form of decision-making is wrong sometimes and tends to interfere with an individual’s autonomy. What do I mean by this? May exist the case in which the participants do not come to an agreement all at once, and if that’s so, the “leader” will decide for all of them attempting against the right of autonomy of those few individuals that did not agree at first. (Driever, Stiggerlbout, & Brand, 2020).

Informative decision-making

The informative decision-making model is mainly used when the choices that people have to make are related to the decision topic. It mainly involves assessing potential outcomes, benefits as well as risks related to every option. With informative decision-making, people tend to have a sense of self-confidence, reduced anxiety and feelings of conflict on one’s decision. However, this form of decision-making tends to require too much time. The decision to be made and the whole process it entails requires time to listen to all people and identify the most effective decision to make (El Miedany et al., 2019).

Shared decision-making

The shared decision-making method involves the healthcare team collaboration to decide the approach to use on the patients’ plan of care. It mainly involves selecting tests as well as treatment in regard to evidence as well as the individual’s individual preferences, beliefs as well as values. Shared decision-making mainly involves allowing evidence and patients’ preferences to be included in a consultation enhancing patient knowledge, risk perception accuracy, patient-clinician communication, and minimizing decisional conflict. However, with this type of decision-making, the majority of the patients do not wish to take part in decisions, therefore uncertainties inherent in medical care tend to be dangerous. This is not appropriate to offer information on the potential risks as well as benefits of all treatment choices. Additionally, maximizing patient involvement in decision-making may result in increased demand for inappropriate, expensive as well as dangerous procedures that might undermine the equitable allocation of healthcare resources (Driever, Stiggerlbout, & Brand, 2020).

The method that has the strongest possibility of resulting in permanent change

The informative decision-making model has the possibility of resulting in permanent change, and this happens as a result of detailed consideration of a set of options. The decision made considers each person’s desires and thus it tends to fit every person’s needs. Informed decision majors on the risks and benefits involved in the decision-making process. When making a decision using the informative decision-making model, patience, objective thinking, accounting for unpredictability, and preparation for failures are considered. This model identifies effective ways to overcome obstacles, accommodate various perspectives as well as enhance the decision-making capacity (Metcalfe, 2018).

References

Driever, E. M., Stiggelbout, A. M., & Brand, P. L. (2020). Shared decision making: Physicians’ preferred role, usual role, and their perception of its key components. Patient Education and Counseling, 103(1), 77-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2019.08.004

El Miedany, Y., El Gaafary, M., Lotfy, H., El Aroussy, N., Mekkawy, D., Nasef, S. I., Farag, Y., Almedany, S., Wassif, G., & PRINTO Egypt. (2019). Shared decision-making aid for juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Moving from informative patient education to interactive critical thinking. Clinical Rheumatology, 38(11), 3217-3225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-019-04687-y

Metcalfe, S. A. (2018). Genetic counselling, patient education, and informed decision-making in the genomic era. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 23(2), 142-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2017.11.010

Discussion 2

Decision-Making Models

Paternalistic Decision-Making Model

The model occurs when one party makes decisions for another without the latter’s explicit consent. In such situations, the party that makes decisions assumes that the decisions are in the other person’s best interests. In healthcare, paternalism happens when the doctor or other healthcare professional makes decisions for the patient without their consent (School of Medicine University of Missouri, 2022). For example, a nurse may decide to stop chemotherapy treatment for a patient after realizing that the patient becomes weaker and gets into a coma after every session. The nurse here considers stopping chemotherapy the best thing for the already weak patient and should not be subjected to more suffering.

The main advantage of paternalistic decision-making is that the decision-maker is usually better positioned than the other party to make appropriate decisions. Take the example of a healthcare situation where physicians have in-depth knowledge of illnesses and treatment. They can best decide how to handle a specific medical condition than the patient. The disadvantages of paternalistic decision-making include: It denies the other party the freedom to exercise autonomy, and the decision-maker can make wrong choices.

Shared Decision Making Model

Shared decision-making occurs when the parties involved share thoughts on the best thing to do. In healthcare, shared decision-making refers to the approach where patients and healthcare professionals share the best available evidence when making decisions (Elwyn et al., 2012). The pros of the shared decision-making model include enabling other people’s preferences and evidence to be incorporated into a consultation, reducing decisional conflict, and improving risk perception accuracy. In healthcare, a shared decision-making approach ensures that decisions are well understood, consistent with personal preferences, and based on more accurate expectations of the positive and negative consequences (Elwyn et al., 2012).

The cons of shared decision-making include one party’s unwillingness to participate in decision-making and increasing demand for unnecessary costly procedures. The shared decision-making cons specific to healthcare is that it could be harmful to reveal all medical information to the patients (Elwyn et al., 2012). Shared decision-making best suits problems that require solutions tailored to fit the specific situation.

Informed Decision-Making Model

Informed decision-making refers to utilizing available, relevant, and evidence-based information to tackle a problem (Bowen et al., 2009). It may involve reading research papers on similar problems and talking to the people who are most knowledgeable about the decision at hand.

The benefits of an informed decision-making approach include: It increases participant’s satisfaction with the decision, decreases feelings of conflict and anxiety regarding a decision, increases self-confidence and knowledge. In addition, informed decision-making has a lasting effect on change.

Informed decision-making relies on data; therefore, a lack of reliable information can be a drawback. Decision-makers may not always access complete and clear information, slowing down or discrediting decisions. The approach is suitable for problems that require parties to choose options that have been tested before. Evaluating data enables the parties to choose the best option.

The informed decision-making model has the highest possibility of resulting in permanent change because it enables the understanding of the benefits and risks of the available options. Besides, the decision-maker chooses what they feel is right and useful in the short and long term. That is unlike shared and paternalistic decision making, where an individual’s influence can lead to a decision that may not be useful in the long term.

References

Bowen, S., Erickson, T., Martens, P., & Crockett, S. (2009). More than “using research”: The real

challenges in promoting evidence-informed decision-making. Healthcare Policy | Politiques De Santé, 4(3), 87-102. https://doi.org/10.12927/hcpol.2009.20538

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