Threats To Validity
Validity is the extent to which a concept conclusion or measurement is well-founded and likely corresponds accurately to the real world. The word “valid” is derived from the Latin validus, meaning strong. The validity of a measurement tool (for example, a test in education) is the degree to which the tool measures what it claims to measure. Validity is based on the strength of a collection of different types of evidence (e.g. face validity, construct validity, etc.) described in greater detail below.
In psychometrics, validity has a particular application known as test validity “the degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of test scores” (“as entailed by proposed uses of tests”).
It is generally accepted that the concept of scientific validity addresses the nature of reality in terms of statistical measures and as such is an epistemiological and philosophical issue as well as a question of meaurement. The use of the term in logic is narrower, relating to the truth of inferences made from premises. In logic, and therefore as the term is applied to any epistemological claim, validity refers to the consistency of an argument flowing from the premises to the conclusion; as such, the truth of the claim in logic is not only reliant on validity. Rather, an argumentative claim is true if and only if it is both valid and sound. This means the argument flows without contradiction from the premises or the conclusion, and all of the premises and the conclusion correspond to known facts. As such, “scientific or statistical validity” is not a deductive claim that is necessarily truth preserving, but is an inductive claim that remains true or false in an undecided manner. This is why “scientific or statistical validity” is a claim that is qualified as being either strong or weak in its nature, it is never necessary nor certainly true. This has the effect of making claims of “scientific or statistical validity” open to interpretation as to what, in fact, the facts of the matter mean.
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Validity is important because it can help determine what types of tests to use, and help to make sure researchers are using methods that are not only ethical, and cost-effective, but also a method that truly measures the idea or constructs in question.
- Create a detailed chart of major threats to validity for conclusion, construct and external validity.
- Write an essay that describes the major threats and how you would minimize them for internal validity.
Create a chart, noting three types of threats for conclusion, construct, and external validity. The following is an example of how you may want to organize your chart. In column 1, specify the specific threat; in column 2, provide a description of this threat; and in column 3, include a brief description of the method that is used to minimize the threat.
Example chart attached!
After you have completed your chart, prepare an essay in which you thoroughly describe the major threats to validity in external validity and explain how you would minimize the threats. Support your essay with five references that are scholarly and peer reviewed.
Length: 3 pages for the chart; 2-3 page essay (Not including title and reference pages)
Your chart and paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts by providing new thoughts and insights relating directly to the topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.
ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS
Discussion Questions (DQ)
- Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
- Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
- One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
- I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
- Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
- In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
- Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
- Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality
- Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
- Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
- I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes
- I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
- As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
- It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
- For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
- Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
- Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
- Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
- The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
- Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
- If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
- I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
- As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
- Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
- Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
- Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.